Minerals Table

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List of Minerals & Trace Elements required by our body



Food Sources

Deficiency Symptoms


There is an indication, from population surveys in different countries, that adequate calcium intakes may reduce the risk of colon cancer.

Adequate amounts may also reduce blood pressure in those who are sensitive to salt consumption.

Stimulates the clotting of blood after injury, and is required for normal nerve and muscle activity

Builds and maintains bone strength, which prevents stress fractures,

Builds and maintains teeth,

Helps regulate heart function,

Assists in muscle growth and contraction.

Milk & milk products, Calcium fortified juices, Beans, Oranges, Broccoli

Spontaneous nerve discharge and tetany (cramps)

RDA: Adults 1200 mg, Children 800 mg, Infants 500 mg, Pregnant & Lactating Women 1200 mg


Maintains nerve impulses that control the muscles,

Maintains water balance and distribution,

Needed for the production of stomach acid.

Table salt (sodium chloride)

Acid-based imbalance

RDA: Adults 750 mg, Children 600 mg


If your diet is high in simple sugars, or you are prone to physical trauma or infection, your diet may be in need of Chromium.

In some individuals it increases the concentration of HDL cholesterol.

It affects many of the body's metabolisms, including: glucose, carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism.

Chromium is found in eggs, beef, whole grains, brewer's yeast as well as molasses.

A shortage of chromium may also lead to anxiety, fatigue, glucose intolerance (particularly in people with diabetes), inadequate metabolism of amino acids, and an increased risk of arteriosclerosis.

RDA: 120 mcg is indicated as dosage.


Copper may also play a role in the body's thermal regulation, cholesterol metabolism, glucose metabolism, as well as immune & cardiac functions

Copper is part of an antioxidant enzyme.

It affects many of the body's functions, including: iron metabolism, the nervous system, bone health, and protein synthesis.

It also affects pigments in the skin, eyes, and hair.

Copper is made available from a variety of foods, such as whole grain, liver, molasses, and nuts, but water from copper pipes will also carry copper in it, and copper cooking utensils will also add more copper to be ingested.

If copper is deficient in the body, iron is also normally in short supply, leading to anemia as well as the likelihood for infections, osteoporosis, thinning of bones, thyroid gland dysfunction, heart disease as well as nervous system problems.

RDA: 2 mg per day is required.


Along with protein, helps form hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs through the blood to the body tissues, which includes the muscles.

Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin (the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen). It is also involved in energy metabolism.


Beef, Lamb, Pork, Leafy green vegetables, Iron fortified cereals, Breads

Anaemia, decreased oxygen transport, and energy loss

Anemia develops from iron deficiency, and it is a major problem around the world. It most commonly occurs in young children, pregnant women, and the elderly.

RDA: Men 10-12 mg, Women 15 mg, Children 10 mg, Pregnant Women 30 mg


If you have an under-active thyroid try and avoid large amounts of raw cabbage, peaches, pears, spinach and Brussels sprouts as they may block the absorption of iodine.

Goiter is not always the cause of iodine deficiency, but can in some cases be caused certain micro-organisms.

Iodine is a part of the thyroid hormone, and as a part of that hormone it helps regulate growth, development, and energy metabolism.


Iodine is found in eggs, milk, shellfish, sea fish and sea food, sea vegetables - such as kelp, asparagus etc. and in certain countries, salt

If your diet does not include salt or seafood, iodine supplements would be in order.

When iodine is deficient the thyroid gland enlarges (referred to as a goiter) to maximize the amount of iodine to be extracted from the blood, and if this problem is not corrected, a shortage of this hormone in the body may lead to constipation, obesity, weakness, mental slowness as well as mental problems.

RDA: 150 mcg per day is indicated as dosage.


This mineral is involved in energy metabolism (ATP) and DNA, a genetic material.

The functional significance of magnesium in bone has yet to be determined, even though that's where sixty percent of the body's magnesium is located.

Magnesium is required for normal muscle and nerve activity.

Aids in the body's enery production,

Combats stress,

Assists in bone growth,

Helps regulate body temperature.

Bananas, Green vegetables, Corn, Apples, Whole wheat bread

Increased nervous system irritability, vasodilation, and arrhythmias

The adequate intake of magnesium may help to control blood pressure, while low levels of magnesium has been found in those who have migraines.

RDA: Men 350 mg, Women 300 mg, Children 150-200 mg, Infants 40-60 mg


Required for the normal development of your bones and connective tissues.

It is part of an enzyme that is involved in the breaking down of carbohydrates, and the synthesis of fatty acids.

It is found in nuts, avocados, eggs, brown rice, spices, whole grains, leafy greens as well as tea and coffee.

A manganese deficiency may contribute to poor bone health, increasing your chances of osteoporosis.

RDA: 2 mg per day


High rates of esophageal cancer have been reported in regions where the soil levels of molybdenum are low as well as vitamin C intake - although this does not clinically prove that molybdenum might be involved with prevention of certain cancers.

Molybdenum is an essential nutrient for many of your body's enzymes.

Molybdenum may affect the metabolism of one type of hormone-glucocorticoid.

Milk, lima beans, spinach, liver, grain, peas and other dark green leafy vegetables contain molybdenum.

Deficiencies of molybdenum are identified by the absence of the three molybdenum enzymes.

The absences of sulfite oxidase in metabolic disorder can lead to death at an early age.

RDA: 250 mcg per day


Phosphorous regulates the energy release from foods, and is a component of ATP, the body's major energy source, and DNA, a genetic material.

Phosphorous has been shown to decrease lead absorption and is abundant in many types of food.

Helps in almost every chemical reaction in the body, assists in the use of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for energy,

Stimulates heart and muscle contractions,

Along with calcium, phosphorous forms bones and teeth.

Prevents tooth decay.

Meats, Fish, Chicken, Eggs, Whole grains, Chocolate!

Loss of energy and cellular function

RDA: Adults 1200 mg, Children 800 mg


Aids in the conversion of glucose to glycogen,

Nourishes the muscles,

Stimulates the kidney to get rid of body wastes.

Bananas, Green leafy vegetables, Oranges, Potatoes, Raisins, Dried beans

Muscle weakness, abnormal electrocardiogram, and alkaline urine

RDA: Adults 2000 mg, Children 1500 mg


With water, helps retain fluids that counteract dehydration,

Helps our bodies produce a thirst sensation so we'll drink more fluids.

Seafood, Poultry, Carrots, Beets

Nausea, vomiting, exhaustion, and dizziness

RDA: Adults 500 mg, Children 400 mg


Selenium is part of an enzyme system, and acts as an antioxidant.

Boosts your immune system and helps protect your body from cancer.

Selenium is also important to the metabolism of thyroid hormones.

Seafood, liver, lean meats, grains

No specific symptoms

RDA: Men 70 mcg, Women 55 mcg, Children 20 - 30 mcg, Infants 10 - 15 mcg, Pregnant Women 65 mcg, Lactating Women 75 mcg


Zinc is an important part of growth and development.

Helps remove carbon dioxide from excercising muscles,

Protects against pollution.


It affects many of the body's major functions, including: protein synthesis & digestion, wound healing, healthy bones, and the synthesis of DNA.

It moderates the functions of the immune system, and is a major component in the antioxidant enzyme systems of your body.

Lean meats, liver, eggs, seafood, whole grains, dairy products

May be cause of anaemia, retardation in growth, and delayed genital maturation

The elderly are at risk of zinc deficiency because as we get older our ability to absorb & utilize zinc decreases.

RDA: Men 15 mg, Women 12 mg, Children 10 mg, Infants 5 mg

* RDA - Recommended Daily Allowance

The above opinionated views and information serves to educated and informed consumer .  The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. .It should not replaced professional advise and consultation.  A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions 

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